Business often is conducted by agents who act for others. For example, insurance policies may be sold through agents. Agencies also exist in relationships between guardians and wards, employees and employers, estates and executors, and partners.
Section 8 of the Clayton Act, 15 U.S.C.S. § 19, prohibits corporations from having the same directors or officers in some instances. Thus, under Section 8, a person may not serve as an officer or director of two non-bank corporations if one of the companies has more than $10 million (adjusted for annual GDP changes) in capital, surplus, and undivided profits and the companies compete so that an agreement between them would eliminate that competition and result in a violation of an antitrust law. An example of a violation of an antitrust law which Section 8 of the Clayton Act is designed to prevent is an agreement between two or more competitors on the prices they charge, which would be a per se illegal agreement under Section 1 of the Sherman Act, 15 U.S.C.S. § 1.
Section 2 of the Sherman Act, 15 U.S.C.S. § 2, prohibits monopolies and attempts or conspiracies to monopolize. The statute provides for prison terms and fines in actions brought by the U.S. Department Justice and for injunctions and damages in civil actions brought by the Department of Justice, states, and private parties.
Multi-Class Mutual Fund
(An Outline of Federal Securities Laws)